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Data Warehouse Concepts
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March 31, 2023
15 min
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Svetlana Lavrinenko

Big Storage for Big Data

March 31, 2023
15 min
Svetlana Lavrinenko photo
Svetlana Lavrinenko
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Data Warehouse Concepts

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In the modern world, data is the new currency. With the rise of technology, the volume of the generated data is increasing exponentially. Organizations are harnessing this data to make informed business decisions. However, with large volumes of data, it becomes essential to store, organize, and analyze it effectively. This is where data warehousing comes into play. In this article, we will explore the basics, types, and examples of data warehousing.

Many sources - one data store

Data warehousing refers to the process of collecting and managing data from multiple sources to provide meaningful insights. It involves the use of different technologies and techniques to extract data from disparate sources, transform it into a consistent format, and load it into a central repository called a data warehouse. Data warehousing enables businesses to access and analyze large volumes of data to make informed decisions.

Proper storage brings benefits

Data warehousing is essential for organizations that generate and manage vast amounts of data. It provides a centralized repository for data storage and management, making it easier to access and analyze. By analyzing data stored in a warehouse, businesses can gain valuable insights into customer behavior, market trends, and operational performance. This enables businesses to make informed decisions that can drive growth and profitability.

At DATAFOREST, we offer a range of data warehousing services that enable businesses to collect, store, and analyze data effectively. Our team of experts has extensive experience in designing, developing, and implementing data warehousing solutions that meet the unique needs of each business.

Proper storage brings benefits

Data Warehouse Concepts

Data warehousing is a vital aspect of modern data management that enables businesses to collect, organize, and analyze data from various sources to gain valuable insights. A data warehouse is a centralized repository that is specifically designed for analysis and reporting. In this article, we will explore the fundamental concepts of data warehousing, including its characteristics, purpose, and components.

Data-driven decision making

A data warehouse is subject-oriented, integrated, time-variant, and non-volatile. This means that it is organized around specific subject areas, integrates data from multiple sources into a consistent format, stores historical data to enable trend analysis, and does not get updated frequently. These characteristics enable a data warehouse to provide a reliable and accurate source of data for business decision-making.

Not only storage

The primary purpose of a data warehouse is to provide a comprehensive and reliable source of data for business decision-making. It enables businesses to gain insights into customer behavior, market trends, and operational performance. By analyzing data stored in a warehouse, businesses can make informed decisions that can drive growth and profitability.

There are four components of data warehouses:

  1. Load Manager - performs operations related to extracting and loading data
  2. Warehouse Manager - data management in the warehouse: analysis, creation of indexes and views, archiving and data processing, etc.
  3. Request manager - backend component, it performs operations related to managing user requests
  4. End User Access Tools:
  • Reporting
  • Query tools
  • Development Tools
  • Engineering and Industrial Solutions Tools
  • Dimensional Structuring and Data Mining Tools

Data Warehouse Architecture

A data warehouse architecture refers to the structure and organization of a data warehouse system. In this chapter, we will explore the different types of data warehouse architectures, including traditional, modern, and cloud data warehousing.

Traditional Data Warehouse Architecture

Traditional data warehouse architecture consists of four main components:

  • Source systems are the systems from which data is extracted and loaded into the data warehouse
  • Data integration involves the process of extracting data from multiple sources and transforming it into a consistent format
  • Data storage involves the physical storage of data in the data warehouse
  • Query and analysis tools are the tools used to analyze data stored in the data warehouse and generate reports

Modern Data Warehouse Architecture

Modern data warehouse architecture is designed to handle big data and enable real-time data analysis. It consists of multiple data storage technologies, including Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) and NoSQL databases. It also includes data processing technologies, such as Apache Spark and Apache Storm, that enable real-time data processing. Modern data warehouse architecture is highly scalable, enabling businesses to store and process large volumes of data quickly and efficiently.

Cloud Data Warehousing

Cloud data warehousing is a relatively new approach to process that involves storing data in a cloud-based environment. It enables businesses to store and analyze data without the need for on-premises hardware and software. Cloud data warehousing is highly scalable and flexible, enabling businesses to scale up or down as needed. It also offers cost savings compared to traditional data warehousing.

Big data storage features

The explosion of data in the digital world has created new challenges for businesses. Big data, the term used for large and complex datasets, poses unique challenges for traditional data warehousing systems. However, data warehousing can be leveraged for big data analytics to uncover valuable insights about customer behavior, market trends, and operational performance.

Challenges of Big Data in Data Warehousing

Big data presents several challenges for traditional data warehousing. These challenges include:

  • Volume: Big data involves managing vast amounts of data that traditional data warehousing systems may not be able to handle.
  • Velocity: Big data is generated and updated in real-time, requiring fast processing and analysis capabilities.
  • Variety: Big data comes from various sources, including structured and unstructured data, requiring a flexible data management system.
  • Veracity: Big data may contain inaccurate or inconsistent data, requiring data quality management systems.

Big Data Analytics using Data Warehousing

Big Data Analytics using Data Warehousing is a powerful tool for businesses looking to make sense of the massive amounts of data generated every day. With the explosion of digital technologies, data is now being produced at an unprecedented rate, creating both opportunities and challenges for organizations. Data Warehousing provides a scalable and efficient way to store and manage this data, while Big Data Analytics techniques help organizations extract valuable insights and make informed decisions.

Data Warehousing involves collecting and storing data from multiple sources in a centralized repository. This data is then organized in a way that allows for easy retrieval and analysis. By implementing data warehousing, businesses can access and analyze large volumes of data quickly and efficiently. This helps to identify patterns, trends, and anomalies that can be used to make data-driven decisions.

Big Data Analytics techniques can be used to gain deeper insights into this data. This involves the use of advanced algorithms and machine learning models to identify patterns and trends that may not be immediately apparent. By analyzing data in this way, organizations can gain a more complete understanding of their customers, operations, and the market.

The benefits of using Data Warehousing for Big Data Analytics are numerous. By storing data in a central repository, businesses can ensure that data is accurate, consistent, and up-to-date. This can help to improve data quality, reduce errors, and increase the reliability of analytics. Additionally, by analyzing large volumes of data, businesses can gain a competitive advantage by identifying new trends and opportunities before their competitors.

Overview of data warehouse architecture

The architecture of a data warehouse consists of four primary components:

  1. Data sources refer to the various systems that provide data to the warehouse. These sources can include internal systems such as an organization's operational systems, as well as external sources like third-party data providers.
  2. The ETL process is responsible for collecting data from various sources, transforming it into a standardized format, and loading it into the data warehouse. 
  3. Data storage refers to the physical storage of data within the warehouse. There are two primary types of data storage:
  • relational storage uses a database management system (DBMS) to store data in tables and columns
  • multidimensional storage uses a multidimensional database (MDB) to store data in cubes
  1. Data access refers to the methods used to retrieve data from the data warehouse. These methods can be divided into two types:
  • query-based access involves running SQL queries on the data warehouse
  • analysis-based access involves using business intelligence (BI) tools to analyze the data.
Overview of data warehouse architecture

Benefits and challenges of Data Warehousing


  1. Improved data integration: data warehousing allows for the integration of data from multiple sources into a single repository, making it easier to analyze and use for decision-making.
  2. Business intelligence: by providing a centralized repository of data, warehousing enables businesses to conduct in-depth analysis and reporting, as well as forecasting and predictive analytics, ultimately leading to better decision-making.
  3. Competitive advantage: organizations that effectively use data warehousing to analyze their data can gain a competitive advantage by making more informed decisions, improving customer satisfaction, and identifying new business opportunities.
  4. Enhanced data quality: by standardizing and cleansing data during the ETL process, data warehousing can improve the quality of data, reducing the risk of errors and inconsistencies.


  1. Cost: implementing and maintaining a data warehouse can be costly, especially for small and medium-sized businesses. The costs associated with purchasing hardware, software, and employing specialized staff can be a significant investment.
  2. Complexity: designing, implementing, and maintaining a data warehouse can be complex and require specialized skills and knowledge. The process can be time-consuming and may require significant resources.
  3. Scalability: as the amount of data increases, data warehousing can become more challenging to manage, and scaling the system to accommodate more data can be expensive and time-consuming.
  4. Data security: Data warehousing can create a single point of failure, making it an attractive target for hackers. This can lead to security breaches and the loss of sensitive data.

Examples of Well-Known Data Warehouses

Amazon Redshift, Microsoft Azure SQL Data Warehouse, and Google BigQuery are all popular examples of cloud-based data warehouses. These platforms offer various features and integrations, making them ideal for organizations to get started with data warehousing.

Amazon Redshift

Amazon Redshift is a fully managed, petabyte-scale data warehouse service that enables organizations to store and analyze large volumes of data in a cost-effective and scalable way. It offers various features, such as automatic performance optimization, that can enhance query processing and reduce costs.

Microsoft Azure SQL Data Warehouse

Microsoft Azure SQL Data Warehouse is a cloud-based data warehouse that has built-in AI capabilities and integrates with other Azure services. This platform is a popular choice for organizations already using Azure, as it offers scalability, flexibility, and cost-effectiveness.

Google BigQuery

Google BigQuery is a cloud-native data warehouse that is designed to handle large-scale, real-time analytics. It offers advanced features such as intelligent query caching, automatic scaling, and machine learning integrations, making it a powerful tool for organizations that need to process and analyze large amounts of data quickly.

Data Lakes vs Data Warehouses

Data Warehouse

It is a set of databases structured relationally. It allows you to store information that accumulates daily for a long time, as well as create reports and analyze data.

In the process of building a data warehouse, you need to choose a database and table structure and develop a storage policy. Such repositories often involve sophisticated analytics to generate statistics to study changes over time. They are tightly integrated with graphical tools for creating dashboards and infographics. This allows you to quickly visualize the detected changes.

Data Lake

Includes more raw data for further modeling and analysis. Sometimes such a system stores information in flat files and logs. It is suitable for storing a large number of records that may be useful in the future.

Sometimes the terms "data warehouse" and "data lake" are used to refer to the same system. Incoming raw data is stored in the data lake, and after analysis and structuring, it enters the warehouse.

Examples of using

In medicine, there are established rules to protect patient privacy. In this industry, the company uses a special service for storing records, from which information can be retrieved in the long term. Such a service acts as a data lake because there is no need for the doctor and patients to compare and compare treatment results.

And the head of a manufacturing plant must make quick and correct decisions on long-term trends in sales and pricing. Here you need to compare sales performance by region over certain periods. A data warehouse capable of running complex queries greatly simplifies supply chain management.

Save for the future

It is advisable to place modern data warehouses in a cloud service, then they will become a key component of any business. They effectively combine data from multiple internal systems with important new information from external sources.

Dashboards, performance metrics, and reports meet the requirements of managers and staff, as well as meet the needs of customers and suppliers. Data warehouses perform complex searches with data analysis without disrupting other business systems.

With a flexible structure that scales quickly, headquarters and divisions can optimize decision-making and increase productivity with modern storage technologies. To do this, it remains only to select a team of smart performers who reasonably implement the task. DATAFOREST has such stuff that specializes in data science.


What are the different types of data warehouses, and what are their purposes?

There are three main types of data warehouses: enterprise data warehouse (EDW), operational data store (ODS), and data marts. EDWs are designed to integrate data from various sources and provide a single source of truth for enterprise reporting and analysis. ODSs are used to support real-time data integration and operational decision-making. Data marts are smaller data warehouses that focus on a specific department or business area.

What are some examples of industries that use data warehousing, and what types of data do they store?

Industries that commonly use data warehousing include healthcare, finance, retail, and telecommunications. The types of data stored can vary widely depending on the industry but may include patient health records, financial transactions, sales data, and customer information.

What are some key concepts related to data warehousing, such as data integration and dimensional modeling?

Key concepts related to data warehousing include data integration, which involves combining data from various sources into a single, unified view, and dimensional modeling, which involves organizing data into a dimensional structure for easier analysis and reporting.

What is the difference between traditional data warehouse architecture and modern data warehouse architecture?

Traditional data warehouse architectures typically involve a centralized database and a structured ETL (extract, transform, load) process. Modern data warehouse architectures may involve distributed computing, cloud-based storage, and real-time data processing.

How do big data challenges affect data warehousing, and what solutions are available?

Big data challenges can impact data warehousing by increasing the volume, variety, and velocity of data that must be processed. Solutions to these challenges may include distributed computing, real-time data processing, and advanced analytics techniques such as machine learning.

How can businesses use data warehousing to gain insights and make better decisions?

By storing and analyzing large amounts of data in a data warehouse, businesses can gain insights into customer behavior, market trends, and operational performance. This information can be used to make data-driven decisions that can improve efficiency, reduce costs, and increase revenue.

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